Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which are the air passageways between the nose and the lungs. The cause of bronchitis can be microorganisms or other particles irritating the bronchial tube lining. Sinus infection is the name given to any infection of the paranasal sinuses. Paranasal sinuses are many small hollow spaces in the bones of the face.
- Bronchitis affects the bronchial tubes in the lungs, causing inflammation and increased mucus production.
- Sinus infections occur when the sinus cavities become inflamed or infected, leading to nasal congestion and facial pain.
- Both conditions share some symptoms, such as coughing and fatigue, but bronchitis primarily affects the lungs, whereas sinus infections impact the nasal passages.
Bronchitis vs Sinus Infection
Bronchitis is an infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or contaminated air in the lungs causing swelling of air tubes and breathing issues with coughing. Sinus Infection is an infection caused in nasal cavities by bacteria and viruses causing inflammation, congestion, facial pain, and headache.
|Parameters of Comparison
|The Area Affected
|Primary and secondary bronchi are located in the lungs.
|Paranasal sinuses are present in the forehead, cheek, and around the nasal region.
|Smoking and irritant exposure to the lungs.
|Viral, bacterial, and sometimes also fungal infections.
|Acute and chronic bronchitis.
|Acute, subacute, and chronic sinusitis.
|COPD, pneumonia, and respiratory failure in the chronic case.
|Brain Abscess, meningitis, wheezing.
|Antibiotics with cough suppressant medicines, mucolytics, bronchodilators, and painkillers if necessary.
|Antibiotics, humidifiers, oral fluid intake increase, nasal sprays, and saline irrigation to nostrils.
What is Bronchitis?
The bronchial tubes are patent and normal in size in a normal person. In bronchitis, these passageways become narrowed. The swelling occurs in the bronchial tubes as the immune system generates mucus. This causes the symptoms of wheezing, cough, chest discomfort, and fever. There are two types depending on the time of infection passed, acute and chronic.
Acute bronchitis lasts a few days or weeks. A cold or viral infection follows it up and is contagious, as opposed to chronic bronchitis. Flu-causing viruses or bacterial infections cause it. Irritants such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, or any fumes can also be one of its causes leading to chest discomfort, fever, shortness of breath, wheezing for asthmatic patients, and productive cough. A doctor might perform a chest x-ray to diagnose acute bronchitis.
Chronic bronchitis, in contrast, is characterized by a persistent productive cough that can last longer than 3 months to more than 2 years. Smoking, other irritants such as fumes, dust, air pollutants, and underlying diseases (e.g., asthma, cystic fibrosis, GERD) contribute to its cause. The general symptoms are difficulty in breathing, tight chest, and shortness of breath. For diagnosis, a doctor might perform a chest x-ray, sputum test, pulmonary function test, and CT scan.
What is Sinus Infection?
Paranasal sinuses or sinuses are hollow air-filled sacs lined by a mucus membrane. They exist in 4 pairs: frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal. They are mainly related to the nasal cavity and have various functions, including controlling the head’s weight, regulating inhaled air temperature, and protecting vital structures of the face in case of trauma. These sinuses have small openings called Ostia which open into the nasal cavity.
A sinus infection is an acute inflammation of the mucus membrane lining, causing narrowing or blockage of the Ostia. Maxillary and ethmoid sinuses are the ones more frequently infected. The major causes can be bacterial, viral, or fungal infections while other factors such as allergies, cold weather, occasional smoking, and nasal deformities might also contribute as a cause for infection.
The general symptoms will be pain or pressure over sinus areas, fever, persistent nasal discharge, and nasal congestion at different times, headache, and sore throat. A doctor might perform tests such as an x-ray, sinus CT, nasal endoscopy, or rhinoscopy and also prescribe antibiotics as management treatment.
Main Differences Between Bronchitis and Sinus Infection
- Bronchitis affects the lower respiratory region compared to sinus infections affecting the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, and pharynx.
- Bronchitis is less prevalent than sinus infections mainly due to its causing factor. Bronchitis is most commonly caused by smoking, while viral infections cause sinus infections in most people.
- Complications in bronchitis can lead to COPD, pneumonia, and even excessive damage to lung tissue in severe chronic cases, while in sinus infections, meningitis and vision might be most affected.
- To prevent bronchitis, the patient is advised to quit smoking, while to prevent sinus infections, it is advised to avoid pollutants and irritants by wearing face masks.
- In the case of bronchitis, specifically chronic bronchitis, surgery may be considered to remove lung tissue so that the overall lung volume reduces. As for sinus infections, endoscopic sinus surgery may be done to promote drainage and remove the diseased tissue.
Last Updated : 28 July, 2023
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.