Difference Between Gene and Genome (With Table)

A cell’s genetic information is stored chemically in RNA or DNA. The genetic instructions are determined by the order in which the nucleotide bases are organized in the polynucleotide chain. A gene is a nucleotide sequence that codes for a specific protein. The entire DNA molecules in humans contain thousands of genes. An organism’s genome is made up of all of its nuclear DNA.

Gene vs Genome

The difference between gene and genome is that the gene is the component that passes along genetic information. It is a chromosome that is situated within the chromosome. However, The term “genome” refers to a collection of nuclear DNA. DNA, like chromosomes, exists most of the time. However, the study of the former is known as genetics, whereas the study of the latter is known as genomics.

A gene is a little piece of DNA that makes up the entire molecule. Because the primary goal of a gene is to convey information, it also codes for protein production. The length of a gene consists of hundreds of different bases. There are thousands of genes in a higher organism. Alleles are a type of genetic variation that can be spontaneously selected. Genetics is the term for the branch of science that studies genes and their properties.

The entire DNA present inside a cell is considered the genome. The components that control protein production, as well as the proteins, can be encoded by the genome—the base pairs in the genome number in the billions. Only one genome exists in each organism. Genome variation is mostly caused by duplication and horizontal gene transfer. Genomic science is the scientific study of the genome and its properties.

Comparison Table Between Gene and Genome

Parameters of ComparisonGeneGenome
DefinitionThe element that inherits genetic information is the gene.A set or accumulation of nuclear DNA is called a genome.
Content it containsA small part of the molecule of DNA.It is the whole DNA present inside a cell.
EncodesProtein.Elements that regulate protein synthesis, proteins.
LengthHundred of bases.Billion of bases.
NumberThousand of genes.One genome only.
Name of studyGeneticsGenomics

What is Gene?

The gene is the element that inherits genetic information. It’s a chromosome within a chromosome. A gene is a very small component of the DNA molecule. Because the primary function of a gene is to convey information, it also codes for protein production. The length of a gene is composed of hundreds of bases.

The number of genes found in a higher creature is in the thousands. Alleles are a type of gene variant that can be selected spontaneously. Genetics is the name of the field of study that deals with genes and their properties.

On the strand of DNA polynucleotide, a gene is a sequence stretch or locus. It is known as the molecular unit of heredity because it encodes an amino acid sequence of a certain protein. Genes transmit genetic instructions to children through reproduction. In higher creatures, a single DNA molecule can contain thousands of genes.

What is Genome?

The genome refers to a collection of nuclear DNA. DNA, like chromosomes, is present in the majority of cases. The entire DNA present inside a cell is referred to as the genome. The genome can encode both the components that control protein synthesis and the proteins themselves.

The genome is made up of billions of base pairs. Every creature is made up of only one genome. The main source of variation in genomes is horizontal gene duplication and transfer. The study of the genome and its properties is referred to as genomics.

The genome refers to an organism’s whole collection of nuclear DNA. Although some viruses have RNA genomes, the majority of genomes are made up of DNA. Organelles like chloroplast and mitochondria have their genomes, which are referred to as chloroplast genomes and mitochondrial genomes, respectively.

Main Differences Between Gene and Genome

  1. The element that inherits genetic information is the gene. It is located inside the chromosome. On the other hand, a set or accumulation of nuclear DNA is called a genome. The majority of the time, like chromosomes, DNA exists.
  2. A gene is only a small part of the molecule of DNA. On the other hand, the genome is considered as the whole DNA, present inside a cell.
  3. As the main motive of genes is information transfer, thus it encodes the synthesis of protein. On the other hand, the genome is capable of encoding the elements that regulate protein synthesis and the proteins as well.
  4. Gene’s length comprises bases of about some hundreds in number. On the other hand, the genome comprises base pairs of some billions in number.
  5. The number of genes a higher organism constitutes is a thousand in number. On the other hand, every organism constitutes one genome only.
  6. Alleles in the form of variation of genes, which can be selected naturally. On the other hand, duplication and transfer of genes horizontally cause the main variation in genomes.
  7. The name of the study that deals with the gene and its properties are called genetics. On the other hand, the name of the study of the genome and its properties is called genomics.

Conclusion

In RNA or DNA, a cell’s genetic information is kept in a chemical form. The genetic instructions are determined by the order in which the nucleotide bases of a polynucleotide chain are organized. A gene is a nucleotide sequence that codes for a particular protein. In their total DNA molecules, humans have hundreds of genes.

An organism’s genome consists of its whole nuclear DNA. Chromosome structures include this DNA. Non-repetitive DNA refers to every gene sequence. Repetitive DNA refers to the many DNA sequences found in a genome. Gene control is also aided by this repetitive DNA. A gene is a location on a DNA molecule, whereas a genome is complete nuclear DNA.

Point mutations produce alleles, which are variations of the gene. At the base pair level, point mutations happen. The alterations that occur at the genomic level, on the other hand, are rather significant. Horizontal transfer of genes and gene duplication both introduce and increase the gene product. As a result, the most significant distinction between a genome and a gene is the size of the nucleotides they carry.

References

  1. https://academic.oup.com/bioinformatics/article-abstract/26/18/2334/208255
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/brv.12104
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