Difference Between Glucose and Fructose

Like other minerals, vitamins, and nutrients, sugar is a vital substance for the growth and mechanism of the body. There is a certain amount of sugar in our blood and body cells and this should be maintained. Glucose and fructose are such sugar that provides requirements for the body so it can maintain the daily routine.

Glucose vs Fructose

The main difference between glucose and fructose is that the glucose is acquired by breaking down bigger sugar molecules such as polysaccharides or disaccharides while fructose can be found in the very simplest form that can be taken from multiple fruits and many vegetables. Both are different forms of natural sugar.

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Glucose is a specific type of sugar found in flowers, but another significant term used for glucose is blood sugar that means the level of sugar found in the blood. Glucose helps the body mechanism to work properly. A slight misbalance in the level of blood sugar can cause hours of discomfort.

Fructose is considered to be natural sugar extracted from the juice of fruits. It is also known as fruit sugar. The very common sources from which fructose is derived are maize, sugar beets, and sugarcane. Many vegetables and many fruits contain fructose naturally. Fructose can be used to make the food sweeter than it was.

Comparison Table Between Glucose and Fructose

Parameters Of ComparisonGlucoseFructose
SourceGlucose is mostly found in foods which is rich in carbohydrates such as fruits, potatoes, loaves of bread, etc.The main source from which fructose is extracted is honey, sugarcane, root vegetables, etc.
IdentityThe scientific name used to address glucose is D- Glucose, and pentahydroxyhexana. The scientific name used to address fructose is Fructose and pentahydroxy-2-hexanone.
Chemical formulaThe chemical formula for glucose is C₆H₁₂O₆The chemical formula for fructose is C6H12O6.
ProductionThe commercial production of glucose is through enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. The commercial production of glucose is from beets, corn, sugar, etc.
SolubilityAs compared to fructose, the level of solubility in water of glucose is lesser.Fructose, of all the other types of sugar, is more soluble in water.

What is Glucose?

Glucose is a special kind of sugar that is found in the blood. The cells whether they are found in blood or the body consume their energy from glucose and that makes glucose a very essential part of life. Our body gets glucose from the food we eat or sometimes the body can obtain glucose from other means as well.

The bloodstream supplies blood to the different parts of the body. Insulin and other types of hormones are responsible for controlling the level of glucose in the blood. The term that is required to measure the level of glucose in the blood is glycemia. Glycaemia is also known as blood sugar level and blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level.

A human who weighs almost 154 lbs, contains approximately 4 grams of glucose, that is about a teaspoon. Glycogen is the form in which skeletal muscles and liver cells store glucose and then it becomes part of metabolic homeostasis. Many factors affect the level of glucose in the blood.

The blood sugar level is considered to be normal when it is between 3.9 to 7.1 mmol/L. Although this level of blood sugar can differentiate throughout the day after and before having the meals.

What is Fructose?

Fructose is commonly known as monosaccharide and fruit juice. The main source that provides fructose is sugar beets, fruits, vegetables, honey, sugarcane, etc. Fructose is a sugar that can be almost 1.5 times sweeter than any kind of normal sugar. The process of consuming fructose sugar by a human body is much different than consuming any other sugar.

Fruit sugar helps in the metabolizing process of the liver by producing the required energy. Fructose has very little effect on blood sugar levels. The formula used for fructose sugar is C6H12O6. It is one of the types of dietary monosaccharides, other types are galactose and glucose. Glucose is directly consumed by the blood during the process of digestion.

Fructose contains calories that help a person gain a fixed amount of weight. Food safety authorities encourage the use of fructose in the place of glucose and sucrose since it has a very low effect on the sugar level of the blood. However, if fructose is used in large quantities it can increase the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular, and other syndromes.

The glycaemic response of food is reduced if a person takes fructose before meals. The ratio found in food of fructose and glucose is 1:1.

Main Differences Between Glucose and Fructose

  1. The level of sweetness found in glucose is not much while the level of sweetness is very higher in fructose.
  2. The level of the glycemic index is higher in glucose. On the other hand, fructose lacks in this criteria by having the lowest glycemic value.
  3. Glucose can not dissolve into water the way fructose can. Fructose is the most soluble sugar in water than the other relevant types.
  4. Glucose is a sugar obtained from carbohydrates rich foods. On the other hand, fructose is achieved from fruits and vegetables.
  5. Glucose having less sweetness affects sugar level in high amount while fructose higher amount of sweetness affects sugar level lesser.

Conclusion

Sugar is a very important element a human or animal body requires. There are several benefits of having sugar such as it helping in weight gain or weight loss goals, reducing the risk of diabetes of type 2, healing inflammation, and reducing stress.

To maintain the sugar level, a person should know the numbers. Sugar works as one of the energy sources. Many food producers add extra sugar to the food that can result in high sugar levels. To maintain the sugar level a person should follow the recommended guidelines otherwise it can also negatively affect the health.

References

  1. https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/13/6/610.short
  1. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/58/5/748S/4732304
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