Difference Between NPH and Regular Insulin (With Table)

Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas that allows cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas, halting the production of insulin. Type 2 diabetes develops when high blood sugar levels over time damage these cells, rendering them unable to produce enough insulin to address blood sugar levels. As a result, your muscles, organs, and other body tissues slowly starve, even though there is plenty of food available in your intestines.

NPH And Regular Insulin are used as a treatment for Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes that lowers blood glucose levels. Both NPH And Regular Insulin are extremely similar, yet they are different from each other.

NPH vs Regular Insulin

The difference between NPH And Regular Insulin is that NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) does not result in a rapid drop in blood glucose levels, whereas Regular human insulin, that lowers blood glucose levels rapidly. NPH insulin is slower in time of onset and lasts longer, whereas Regular insulin is faster in terms of onset and shorter in terms of duration.

NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin is found to be the combination of two insulins that can lower the blood glucose levels at a normal rate even when they are too high, moreover, NPH insulin is slower in time of onset, however, NPH lasts longer than any other insulins.

Regular insulin is found to lower the blood glucose levels rapidly when they are too high, and isophane insulin, which works when things are fine with the amount of sugar in the bloodstream, moreover Regular insulin is faster in terms of onset and shorter in terms of duration.

Comparison Table Between NPH and Regular Insulin

Parameters of Comparison NPH Regular Insulin
DefinitionNPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin is a type of long-acting insulin that slows down blood glucose levels.Regular insulin is the regular type of insulin that lowers blood glucose levels.
DurationNPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin lasts longer.Regular insulin is shorter in terms of duration.
OnsetNPH insulin is slower in time of onset.Regular insulin is faster in terms of onset.
ComponentNPH is a mixture that includes their versions of human and beef or pork insulins.Regular insulin is made up of Human insulin, beef insulin, and pork insulin.
Side effectsPale skin, cough, nausea, swollen and red skin.Dizziness, headache, nausea, and swollen skin

What is NPH?

NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin is a long-acting form of rapid-acting insulin that can start using hours before, and continue to use for 24 hours after meals. NPH insulin starts working in about four hours and continues working for up to 24 hours. There are many different types of insulin treatments available, but one of the most popular is NPH.

NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) is a combination of two types of insulin that is slower than regular insulin, moreover, due to the combination of two types of insulin together, NPH slows down absorption so that more time is available for NPH to have its effect on the blood sugar level. NPH does not result in a rapid drop in blood glucose levels and this might make NPH a less desirable option for those who need to control their diabetes with insulin doses.

NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) is as effective when used at the same time each day, moreover, NPH insulin is slower in time of onset and lasts longer than regular insulins. NPH is also preferable to use if, someone is has been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. NPH is a mixture that includes their versions of human and beef or pork insulins.

What is Regular Insulin?

Regular insulin is made up of three types of insulin molecules. Human insulin, beef insulin, and pork insulin are the three types found in normal human insulin. All three are combined to form regular human insulin vials which are used to help keep blood sugar at its preferred level.

Regular human insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels when they are too high, and isophane insulin, which works when things are fine with the amount of sugar in the bloodstream, moreover Regular insulin is found to be shown effective when it is used at the same time each day.

Regular insulin usually starts to work in 15-20 minutes and peaks within an hour, but after three to five hours regular insulin stops working. It doesn’t last very long in your body, moreover, Regular insulin is faster in terms of onset and shorter in terms of duration. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) considers regular insulin to be the only suitable treatment for managing type 1 diabetes in adults.

Main Differences Between NPH and Regular Insulin

  1. NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin is a type of long-acting insulin that slows down the blood glucose levels, whereas, Regular insulin is the regular type of insulin that lowers the blood glucose levels.
  2. NPH is a mixture that includes their versions of human and beef or pork insulins, whereas, Regular insulin is made up of Human insulin, beef insulin, and pork insulin.
  3. NPH insulin lasts longer, whereas, Regular insulin is shorter in terms of duration.
  4. NPH insulin is slower in time of onset, whereas, Regular insulin is faster in terms of onset.
  5. NPH includes Side effects of Pale skin, cough, nausea, swollen and red skin, whereas, Regular insulin includes Side effects of Dizziness, headache, nausea, and swollen skin.

Conclusion

The first insulin was extracted from the pancreases of dogs and pigs, and its initial use was strictly experimental. Two other types of diabetes are not autoimmune, but they are rare. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile diabetes or childhood-onset diabetes because it occurs most frequently in children and teenagers, although it can occur at any age. The other form of non-autoimmune diabetes is called maturity-onset type 2 diabetes.

Both NPH and Regular insulin can be used depending on the needs, the amount and the time of the insulin need to start its acting. If a diabetic patient requires a faster onset of action for the mealtime dose, then NPH insulin is the best option.

References

  1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-004-1365-z
  2. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejm199211123272005
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