Difference Between Political Science and Sociology

Political Science and Sociology both deal with human society. The two terms understand human behaviour and understand the fundamental aspects of human life in a community.

Political Science vs Sociology

The difference between Political Science and Sociology is that political science deals with only the political and governing roles in society, while sociology deals with every aspect of human society as a whole.

Political science vs Polity

Sociology helps one understand the structure and functioning of human beings in a group. It is a form of social studies, which looks into human interaction, and all aspects of a human’s life as they change and grow.

Political Science is considered a more in-depth section of sociology that deals with the politically organized groups in society, and how the role of such a body affects the functioning of other humans in the community.


Comparison Table

Parameters Of ComparisonPolitical ScienceSociology
Coining of TermIntroduced by Aristotle, “The Father of Political Science”, between 428/427–348/347 bcCoined by French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, in the year 1780, and developed further by Auguste Comte.
ScalePolitical Science is a smaller branch of Sociology that deals with a narrow field of interest.Sociology constitutes of many branches of studies about human society on a broader scale.
MeaningIt is concerned with the functioning, theory and analysis of political systems in a society.Sociology takes into account every aspect of behaviour, interaction, and functioning of human society.
Type of studyIn political science, the study is purely political based, i.e., based entirely on philosophical and historical methods.In Sociology, due to having a broader scope, studies are done in sociological, political and even psychological manner.
Components dealt withPolitical Science only deals with government and state bodies.Sociology deals with all communities, associations, institutions, both social and political.


What is Political Science?

The term Political Science made its roots into the Macedonian Empire, where the great philosopher Aristotle had first coined the term, and hence why he is known as the “Father of Political Science”.

It is defined as the study of a society’s political and governing systems and how they function and interact with each other. Here, the research focuses mainly on government, state, local and international bodies of law.

Within Political Science we have a branch called “comparative political studies” which deals with comparing different political systems to judge in which method do people function better, and uphold the values of equality, freedom, and justice.

“Comparative political studies” is usually divided into two necessary frameworks. In the first one, by taking into account individual institutions and law-abiding systems and comparing their existence and functioning in different countries/nations.

We will hence learn how the governing body operates in different environments. The second framework is done by looking into a governing body in a single nation to get an in-depth analysis of the work being done.

political science

What is Sociology?

The term Sociology was Coined in the year 1780, by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, when he was completing his unpublished manuscript.

Sociology is done on a broader scale, considering that it is the study of the various interactions, functioning, behaviours of human beings in a society.

Sociology inevitably has to take into account the political aspect of society into consideration, as the political structure is the foundation of civilization.

The above perspectives give us an understanding of necessary human behaviour and help get a view of how human beings would function without the existence of these factors.

sociology 1

Main Differences Between Political Science and Sociology

  1. Political science is a purely political based study based on historical and civic perspectives while studies of Sociology are done in social, political and even psychological manner.
  2. Political Science only deals with government, state, local and international bodies, while Sociology deals with all communities, associations, institutions, both social and political.


  1. https://www.jstor.org/stable/422167
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/0735-2751.00073
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