Difference Between Political Science and Sociology (With Table)

Political Science and Sociology both deal with human society. The two terms understand human behaviour and understand the fundamental aspects of human life in a community.

Political Science vs Sociology

The main difference between Political Science and Sociology is that political science deals with only the political and governing roles in society, while sociology deals with every aspect of human society as a whole.

Sociology helps one understand the structure and functioning of human beings in a group. It is a form of social studies, which looks into human interaction, and all aspects of a human’s life as they change and grow.

Political Science is considered a more in-depth section of sociology that deals with the politically organized groups in society, and how the role of such a body affects the functioning of other humans in the community.


Comparison Table Between Political Science and Sociology (in Tabular Form)

Parameters Of ComparisonPolitical ScienceSociology
Coining of TermIntroduced by Aristotle, “The Father of Political Science”, between 428/427–348/347 bcCoined by French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, in the year 1780, and developed further by Auguste Comte.
ScalePolitical Science is a smaller branch of Sociology that deals with a narrow field of interest.Sociology constitutes of many branches of studies about human society on a broader scale.
MeaningIt is concerned with the functioning, theory and analysis of political systems in a society.Sociology takes into account every aspect of behaviour, interaction, and functioning of human society.
Type of studyIn political science, the study is purely political based, i.e., based entirely on philosophical and historical methods.In Sociology, due to having a broader scope, studies are done in sociological, political and even psychological manner.
Components dealt withPolitical Science only deals with government and state bodies.Sociology deals with all communities, associations, institutions, both social and political.


What is Political Science?

The term Political Science made its roots into the Macedonian Empire, where the great philosopher Aristotle had first coined the term, and hence why he is known as the “Father of Political Science”.

It is defined as the study of a society’s political and governing systems and how they function and interact with each other. Here, the research focuses mainly on government, state, local and international bodies of law.

Political Science strictly deals with the organized aspect of society on a political level, and hence why, during this study, man is regarded as a political animal instead of a social one. This ensures that every motive and action of a human being in a society is purely political.

Within Political Science we have a branch called “comparative political studies” which deals with comparing different political systems to judge in which method do people function better, and uphold the values of equality, freedom, and justice.

“Comparative political studies” is usually divided into two necessary frameworks. In the first one, by taking into account individual institutions and law-abiding systems and comparing their existence and functioning in different countries/nations.

We will hence learn how the governing body operates in different environments. The second framework is done by looking into a governing body in a single nation to get an in-depth analysis of the work being done. This would put the political system under a microscope and enable the scholars to learn from the mistakes.


What is Sociology?

The term Sociology was Coined in the year 1780, by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, when he was completing his unpublished manuscript. But, in 1838, the “Father of Sociology”, Auguste Comte came into the picture, when he reinvented the term and further developed it.

Sociology is done on a broader scale, considering that it is the study of the various interactions, functioning, behaviours of human beings in a society. Here, every aspect is taken into account, whether it may be scientific, political, social, etc.

Man is looked at as a social animal, which requires all parts of society to function. The structure of society is put under a microscope here, and how humankind thrives in that structure.

Sociology inevitably has to take into account the political aspect of society into consideration, as the political structure is the foundation of civilization. Sociology looks into communities, institutions both on a social and political scale.

The above perspectives give us an understanding of necessary human behaviour and help get a view of how human beings would function without the existence of these factors.

Main Differences Between Political Science and Sociology

  1. Political Science is an old concept, coined during the ancient greek era by Aristotle. Sociology is a much newer concept invented by French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès and reinvented by Auguste Comte.
  2. Political Science is a smaller and narrower study and comes under Sociology; while Sociology is a broader study and encompasses many branches under it.
  3. Political Science is concerned with the functioning, theory and analysis of political and governing systems in a society. Sociology takes into account all criteria for the basis of studying humankind, to study its behaviour and functioning in a community.
  4. Political science is a purely political based study based on historical and civic perspectives while studies of Sociology are done in social, political and even psychological manner.
  5. Political Science only deals with government, state, local and international bodies, while Sociology deals with all communities, associations, institutions, both social and political.



Political Science and Sociology are two concepts that are heavily invested in the studying of humankind in society through various perspectives. Political Science takes into account the political systems that are in play in the community, such as governing bodies at every level, whether it may be state level, local, or even on the international scale.

While Sociology is defined as the complete study of humankind and its behaviour, how one would function in society, keeping in mind the various factors such as psychological, social, and even political components are at play. Sociology as a whole comprises of even the studies done in Political Science, because scholars cannot ignore the role politics plays in society, and hence why Sociology is considered a comprehensive concept for studying humankind.


  1. https://www.jstor.org/stable/422167
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/0735-2751.00073

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Editorial Staff at Ask Any Difference is a team of experts in the field of "Difference Between" topics and led by Sandeep Bhandari, Piyush Yadav and Chara Yadav. Trusted by over 1.5 million readers worldwide
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