Difference Between Political Science and Polity

When human relationships became complex and various leaders and thinkers started exercising their influence on people and society, structures and frameworks were developed to overcome the loopholes. These structures, frameworks, and philosophies have become much more sophisticated today.

The terms Political Science and Polity are manufactured by these complex structures and theories for civilized society. Both are inter-related and yet far apart when initial and original definitions are evaluated. It is in later stages of development that their meanings often intermingle.

Political Science vs Polity

The main difference between Political Science and Polity is that Political Science is the study, research, and reconsideration of existing notions of political power, right, and responsibilities while polity is the system of government itself that would work towards framing and implementing policies and strategies to achieve goals of nationwide development, peace, and security.

Political Science VS Polity


Comparison Table Between Political Science and Polity (in Tabular Form)

Parameter of ComparisonPolitical SciencePolity
DefinitionIt is the study of various political ideas, thoughts, affiliations to work out on policies.It is the governing body that puts the political theories and philosophies into work.
NeedThe need arises due to the demand of a polished society and accountable administration. Basic ideas are questioned and struggled with.With human interactions becoming complex, the need of having a governing body arises, to maintain peace and an accountable system to take decisions on the community’s or nation’s behalf.
Work inputA political scientist uses ongoing debates, discussions, surveys, and philosophies to create modified theories that are suitable for the present.The inputs for governments are the works of political scientists. The governing body closely studies various political frameworks to find the best one for themselves.
BranchesIt includes political economy, international relations, political theories, and comparative politics.A Polity can be of different types like an empire, a nation, a state, an organization, a corporate firm, or share market.
ScopeThe subject is both a Social Science(in the study of behaviors) and Science (in the methodology of Research). It formulates theories based on research.The polity formulates policies based on the research and analysis of political scientists.
AimThe aim of a political scientist is to question, research, empirically prove, modify, re-research to reach out to conclusions and theories that can be used to formulate the structures and policies.The aim of the polity is to adopt policies for the maintenance of peace and cooperation and to modify the policies whenever the need be.


What is Political Science?

Political Science is a very important component of Social Sciences. It is the study or social science of governments, laws, ideologies, ideas, and conflicts.

It comes into sight when we have something to share wealth, resources, pollution, influence, and water. Political Scientists examine every aspect of ideological affiliations, political tussles, governance, laws, diplomacy, external affairs, and political theories. It comes into sight when we have something to share: wealth, resources, pollution, influence, and water.

It is a social science as it studies behaviors of humans when the need to share and some obligations arise. It is a science as the method of study depends on thorough research, empirical evidence, modifications, and Re-research.

It has several branches:

  1. Political Theory: It involves working on concepts and theories that form the basis of a civilized society. Justice, Liberty, Freedom, Equality, etc. are the topics covered under it. It involves very analytical research, explanation and development of the political phenomenon throughout the world, and across time.
  2. Comparative Politics: It refers to the study of various governments, their policies, their behaviors, and alignments across nations. It involves a thorough comparison of development paths followed by countries.
  3. International Relations: It is a discipline that studies interdependence between various state and non-state actors, whether it be NGOs or International Organizations or heads of countries.
  4. Political Economy: International trade relations are subject to laws and customs established by the government of a country. Political support, benefits, and alignments determine the ease with which bilateral talks go on.

What is Polity?

Polity refers to the system and mechanism that is in place to govern a Community or a Nation. It is an individual or a body of individuals that have a huge influence on the entire community either by force or by consensus or by majority vote and who decide the growth measures to run a country.

Such a body of leaders is formed by institutionalized social rules and regulations of that political identity. The entity may be a nation, a state, an empire, an international organization, an ethnic group, or a corporate.

Basically, any organization that can marshal resources and has decisions regarding the allocation of shares and funds to make has a body to ensure fair and just functioning, has a polity. It is concerned with the making and unmaking of government and constitution, the electoral system, and conduct and the division of power both hierarchically and horizontally.

Main Differences Between Political Science and Polity

  1. Political Science is the study of political behaviors and phenomena by the methods of research and analysis to reach out to conclusions and to form political theories and philosophies while polity is the governing body that uses the outputs of political scientists to work out public policy.
  2. Political Science is needed to answer ongoing questions and debates and to very closely analyze evidence while polity is needed to put the political research into practice and to maintain social order.
  3. Political Scientists analyze the philosophical and empirical evidence while the polity works upon the research and analysis produced by political scientists.
  4. The subfields of political science are Political Theory, Comparative Politics, International relations, and Political Economy while the subtypes of polity are a state, an empire, an organization, etc. The polity works upon the actual decision making on topics of political science.
  5. Political Scientists work to bring out and create political frameworks and ideologies and theories while the aim of the polity is to select the most suitable framework for its community.



Political Science and polity might seem to overlap and intermingle at times but it is very important for us to distinguish between them. While political science is the study, the polity is the organization or body responsible to apply the political studies into the mainstream.

Political Science is a study of research and analysis of political happenings and debates ongoing in society. It includes a rational and thorough examination of basic concepts and ideas that affect the society and its behaviors. The polity is responsible for the maintenance of peace and proper administration of the community by discovering the best framework for its community. It uses political theories to make and contain public policy.


  1. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00222.x
  2. https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/47275/
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