XML and XHTML are markup languages that use tags for describing and marking data in a structured format.
Markup languages like XML and XHTML are used for creating structured documents or documents with base content and other data regarding the purpose or role of the base content. XML and XHTML have some differences.
- XML is a markup language for encoding data, while XHTML is a stricter version of HTML that adheres to XML syntax rules.
- XML is more flexible and extensible, while XHTML focuses on compatibility with HTML and XML.
- XML can represent any data, while XHTML is designed for web page markup.
XML vs XHTML
The difference between XML and XHTML is that XML or extensible Markup Language refers to a set of rules which specifies document encoding electronically. On the other hand, XHTML or Extensible Hypertext Markup Language refers to a part of the XML family that acts as an extension of the HTML or Hypertext Markup Language.
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XML or Extensive Markup Language refers to a markup language based on text derived from SGML or Standard Generalized Markup Language.
XML is considered a strong way to save data in a format that can be shared, searched, and stored. The tags of XML help to recognize the data and are used in arranging and saving the data.
By adopting several successful features of HTML, XML introduces new possibilities.
XHTML, or Extensible Hypertext Markup Language, refers to a part of the XML Markup family. XHTML extends or mirrors the version of the widely popular HTML, which is used in Web page formulation.
XHTML was first released in 2000 with its initial version XHTML 1.0. In 2001 XHTML 1.1. became a W3C or World Wide Web Consortium recommendation.
|Parameters of Comparison||XML||XHTML|
|Full-Form||XML represents Extensive Markup Language.||XHTML represents Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.|
|Definition||XML has a hierarchical tree-shaped structure which is called an XML tree.||XHTML refers to a cross between XML and HTML for transiting from HTML to XML.|
|Release||XML was first published in 1998.||XHTML was initially released in 2000.|
|Structure||XML has a hierarchical tree-shaped structure which is called XML tree.||XHTML is developed based on three main components- declaration, head, and body.|
|Components||XML is composed of Unicode.||XHTML comprises three versions- XHTML Transitional, XHTML 1.0 Frameset, and XHTML 1.0 Strict.|
What is XML?
XML or Extensive Markup Language refers to a very flexible, simple text format derived from SGML. It is designed to meet the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing.
It also plays a significant role in exchanging a wide range of data on the Web. XML was first published in 1998.
It is designed to enhance generality, usability, and simplicity across the internet. XML is a text-based data format strongly supported by Unicode for several human languages.
Even though the design of XML mainly emphasizes documents, it is mainly used for representing structures of arbitrary data like web services data.
Many document formats are developed using XML syntax, like Atom, SVG, RSS, XHTML, and SOAP. Many office-productivity tools, like LibreOffice, OpenOffice.org, and Microsoft Office, are based on XML-based formats.
Communication tools like XMPP have XML as the base language.
Several industry data standards like FpML, National Information Exchange Model, OpenTravel Alliance, MISMO, and Health Level 7 are based on XML and its scheme specifications.
XML documents are made of Characters from Unicode. It allows the use of Unicode-defined encodings. It also provides a feature where an XML processor, without any knowledge, can easily and reliably determine the proper encoding.
But XML has been criticized for its complexity, redundancy, and verbosity.
What is XHTML?
XHTML, or Extensible Hypertext Markup Language, is the cross between XML and HTML. It is almost identical to HTML, but XHTML is stricter in case sensitivity and syntax than HTML.
XHTML refers to HTML, which is defined as an XML application. All major browsers support XHTML. Using standard XML parsers, XHTML documents are parsed and well-formed.
XHTML is a data format that is a collection of several document modules and types that categorize, extend and mimic HTML 4. The files present in XHTML are XML-based and work with the XML-based user agents.
For validating, editing, and viewing XHTML files, standard XML tools are used.
It was developed to make HTML more extensible and enhance interoperability with other data formats. XHTML was developed to be less scripting, more structured, and generic using every existing XML facility.
In 2000 XHTML 1.0 became a W3C or World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation. The next version XHTML 1.2, became a W3C Recommendation in the next year.
Different types of applications can be used by XHTML documents, and these applications very much depend on the XML DOM or the HTML DOM.
It gives a proper structure and reliable format for which web pages can be easily operated and analyzed by different web browsers.
Main Differences Between XML and XHTML
- XML is considered the most useful and popular Markup language, whereas XHTML is less popular or less important than XML based on usage.
- XML is a simple text-based format representing structured information like data, transactions, configuration, documents, invoices, books, etc. On the other hand, XHTML refers to a cross between XML and HTML that is used for transiting from HTML to XML.
- XML was first published in 1998, but XHTML was initially released in 2000.
- XML has a hierarchical tree-shaped structure which is called an XML tree. XHTML is developed based on three main components- declaration, head, and body.
- XML is composed of Unicode. XHTML comprises three versions- XHTML Transitional, XHTML 1.0 Frameset, and XHTML 1.0 Strict.
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Sandeep Bhandari holds a Bachelor of Engineering in Computers from Thapar University (2006). He has 20 years of experience in the technology field. He has a keen interest in various technical fields, including database systems, computer networks, and programming. You can read more about him on his bio page.