Difference Between XML and XHTML

The XML and the XHTML are two types of markup languages that use tags for describing and marking data in a structured format.

Markup languages like XML and XHTML are used for creating structured documents, or documents with base content and some other data regarding the purpose or role of the base content. XML and XHTML have some differences. 

XML vs XHTML

The main difference between XML and XHTML is that XML or extensible Markup Language refers to a set of rules which specifies document encoding electronically, on the other hand, XHTML or Extensible Hypertext Markup Language refers to a part of XML family that acts as an extension of HTML or Hypertext Markup Language. 

XML vs XHTML

XML or Extensive Markup Language refers to a markup language that is based on text and derived from SGML or Standard Generalized Markup Language.

XML is considered a strong way to save data in a format that can be shared, searched, and stored. The tags of XML help to recognize the data and are used in arranging and saving the data.

By adopting several successful features of HTML, XML introduces new possibilities.

XHTML or Extensible Hypertext Markup Language refers to a part of the XML Markup family. XHTML extends or mirrors the version of the widely popular HTML, which is used in Web page formulation.

XHTML was first released in 2000 with its initial version XHTML 1.0. In 2001 XHTML 1.1. became a W3C or World Wide Web Consortium recommendation. 

Comparison Table Between XML and XHTML 

Parameters of Comparison XMLXHTML
Full-FormXML represents Extensive Markup Language.     XHTML represents Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.
DefinitionXML refers to a simple text-based format that is used for representing structured information like data, transactions, configuration, documents, invoices, books, and so on.     XHTML refers to a cross between XML and HTML that is used for transiting from HTML to XML. 
ReleaseXML was first published in 1998.     XHTML was initially released in 2000. 
StructureXML has a hierarchical tree-shaped structure which is called XML tree.     XHTML is developed based on three main components- declaration, head, and body.
ComponentsXML is composed of Unicode.     XHTML comprises three versions- XHTML Transitional, XHTML 1.0 Frameset, and XHTML 1.0 Strict.

What is XML?

XML or Extensive Markup Language refers to a very flexible, and simple text format that is derived from SGML. It is designed for meeting the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing.

It also plays a significant role in exchanging a wide range of data on the Web. XML was first published in 1998. 

It is designed to enhance generality, usability, and simplicity across the internet. XML is a text-based data format that is strongly supported by Unicode for several different human languages.

Even though the design of XML mainly emphasizes documents, it is mainly used for representing structures of arbitrary data like the web services data. 

Many document formats are developed using XML syntax, like Atom, SVG, RSS, XHTML, and SOAP. Many office-productivity tools, like LibreOffice, OpenOffice.org, and Microsoft Office, are based on XML-based formats.

Communication tools like XMPP have XML as the base language.

Several industry data standards like FpML, National Information Exchange Model, OpenTravel Alliance, MISMO, and Health Level 7 are based on XML and its scheme specifications. 

XML documents are made of Characters from Unicode. It allows the use of Unicode-defined encodings. It also provides a feature where an XML processor without any knowledge can easily and reliably determine the proper encoding.

But XML has been criticized for its complexity, redundancy, and verbosity.

What is XHTML?

XHTML or Extensible Hypertext Markup Language is the cross between XML and HTML language. It is almost identical to HTML, but the difference is XHTML is stricter in case sensitivity and syntax compared to HTML.

XHTML refers to HTML which is defined as an XML application. All major browsers support XHTML. Using standard XML parsers, XHTML documents are parsed and well-formed.

XHTML is a data format that is a collection of several document modules and types that categorize, extend and mimic HTML 4. The files present in XHTML are XML-based and works with the XML-based user agents.

For validating, editing, and viewing XHTML files standard XML tools are used. 

It was developed for making HTML more extensible and enhancing interoperability with other formats of data. XHTML was developed to be less scripting, more structured, and generic by using every existing XML facility.

In 2000 XHTML 1.0 became a W3C or World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation. The next version XHTML 1.2 became a W3C Recommendation in the next year. 

Different types of applications can be used by XHTML documents and these applications very much depend on the XML DOM or the HTML DOM.

It gives a proper structure and reliable format for which web pages can be easily operated and analyzed by different web browsers.

Main Differences Between XML and XHTML

  1. XML is considered to be the most useful and popular Markup language, whereas XHTML is less popular or less important compared to XML on basis of the usage. 
  2. XML refers to a simple text-based format that is used for representing structured information like data, transactions, configuration, documents, invoices, books, and so on. On the other hand, XHTML refers to a cross between XML and HTML that is used for transiting from HTML to XML.
  3. XML was first published in 1998 but XHTML was initially released in 2000.
  4. XML has a hierarchical tree-shaped structure which is called XML tree. XHTML is developed based on three main components- declaration, head, and body.
  5. XML is composed of Unicode. XHTML comprises three versions- XHTML Transitional, XHTML 1.0 Frameset, and XHTML 1.0 Strict.
Difference Between XML and XHTML

Conclusion

The relationship between XML and XHTML is often confusing for many people. Both XML and XHTML are used on the web, but XML has a wider range of purposes like in web feeds, podcasting, and databases, while XHTML is mostly confined to web pages.

Markup languages like XML and XHTML build structured documents or other documents that have base content. It is very common to find both of these Markup languages used online, but their purposes are not the same.

While XML is used to work in the back end of several complex databases and web applications, XHTML is mainly used for coding web pages.

References

  1. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=XML&btnG=#d=gs_qabs&u=%23p%3DIP3JTYYWgxQJ
  2. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=XHTML&btnG=#d=gs_qabs&u=%23p%3DXb3zPAmFwogJ
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