Procedural Programming vs Object Oriented Programming: Difference and Comparison

What is Procedural Programming?

Procedural programming is said to be a programming paradigm that focuses on the step-by-step execution of techniques or features. In this technique, the program is divided into a sequence of capabilities or processes that control records. These features are achieved linearly, one after the alternative, and might take inputs, perform operations, and convey outputs. Data and functions are saved separately, and functions can get admission to and alter shared records.

Procedural programming follows a top-down technique, where this system is broken down into smaller, extra-doable duties. It is predicated on the capabilities to carry out precise obligations and reap the preferred final results. While it may be effective for less complicated obligations or applications, it can turn out to be tough to manage and keep in larger, extra complex projects.

Common examples of procedural programming languages include C, Pascal, and Fortran. Despite the popularity of other programming paradigms like Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), procedural programming remains a valuable approach, especially in eventualities where simplicity and direct manipulation over application drift are crucial.

What is Object Oriented Programming?

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is an effective paradigm utilized in software program development to arrange and manage code. It revolves around the idea of “devices,” which constitute real-global entities, combining data (attributes) and conduct (techniques) into an unmarried unit. These objects can engage with each other, growing a dynamic and bendy machine.

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One of the important element standards in OOP is encapsulation, which involves bundling information and the techniques that operate on that information in an unmarried unit. This promotes statistics integrity and manages the right of entry to the data.

Inheritance lets in items to inherit houses and behaviours from different gadgets, organizing a hierarchical courting. This permits code reuse and allows for developing a more organized and green codebase.

Polymorphism lets gadgets tackle multiple bureaucracies, permitting unique objects to answer otherwise to the equal method call. This promotes flexibility and adaptability in code design.

OOP promotes code modularity, making it less difficult to control and update big duties. It enhances code reusability, scalability, and maintainability, making it a well-known desire for constructing complicated software systems. Java, C++, Python, and C# are broadly used languages that guide OOP.

Difference Between Procedural Programming and Object Oriented Programming

  1. The procedural programming paradigm is linear, while the object-oriented programming paradigm is positioned on objects and their interactions.
  2. Procedural programming focuses on functions and procedures while on the other hand, object oriented programming focuses on classes and objects.
  3. The data handling in procedural programming focuses on data separation and functions. On the other hand, the data handling in object oriented programming focuses on behaviour and data bundled in objects.
  4. Procedural programming provides limited support for data hiding. In contrast, object oriented programming provides strong support for data hiding.
  5. Examples of procedural programming languages are – Fortran, Pascal, C. Examples of object oriented programming languages are – Ruby, C++, Java, Python, and C#.
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Comparison Between Procedural Programming and Object Oriented Programming

Parameter of ComparisonProcedural ProgrammingObject Oriented Programming
ParadigmLinearObjects and their interactions
FocusFunctions and procedureClasses and objects
Data HandlingFocuses on data separation and functionsBehaviour and data bundled in objects
EncapsulationLimited supportStrong support
Example LanguagesFortran, Pascal, CRuby, C++, Java, Python, C#
Code ReusabilityLimitedHigh
PolymorphismThrough similar or function overloadingThrough interfaces or method overriding
InheritanceIt is not an extrusive functionOne of the key features of hierarchy and code reuse

References

  1. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/BFb0019443
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8160317

Last Updated : 04 March, 2024

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6 thoughts on “Procedural Programming vs Object Oriented Programming: Difference and Comparison”

  1. Procedural programming and Object-Oriented Programming are fundamental for any programmer, it is essential to understand their differences and applications in order to write effective and efficient code.

  2. The emphasis on code reusability, scalability, and maintainability in Object Oriented Programming make it suitable for handling complex tasks. The use of classes and objects allows for better organization and structuring of code.

  3. It’s remarkable how Object-Oriented Programming achieves strong support for data hiding, which ensures a better level of data security and integrity. This is a significant advantage over the procedural approach.

  4. Procedural programming, with its linear approach, is indeed useful for simpler tasks, but it’s clear that Object-Oriented Programming shines when it comes to managing more complex and large-scale projects.

  5. I find it intriguing how Object-Oriented Programming can handle data bundling and behavior in a more sophisticated manner than Procedural Programming. The difference in their paradigms is very telling.

  6. The use of functions and procedures in Procedural Programming versus classes and objects in Object-Oriented Programming really illustrates the contrasting focus between the two paradigms. It’s fascinating to examine their characteristics in depth.

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