Difference Between Hindi and Punjabi (with Table)

Languages are something that connects people. They enable us to communicate with each other. They also help us to convey our message to the other person. Languages are very important, one couldn’t imagine communicating without any language. India is a country which is rich in a variety of languages. 22 official languages are spoken in India and two of such languages are Hindi and Punjabi.

The difference between Hindi and Punjabi is that Punjabi is counted among one of the 22 languages which are spoken in India whereas Hindi is considered to be the national language of India. Also, Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi script whereas Hindi is written in Devanagri script.

Comparison Table Between Hindi and Punjabi

Parameter of ComparisonHindi Punjabi
GeneralIt is considered the national language of India.It is counted among one of the 22 languages spoken in India.
ScriptDevanagariGurumukhi
No. of AlphabetsThe total no. of alphabets is 45 in Hindi. The total no. of alphabets is 35 in Punjabi.
OriginIt is a direct descendant of Vedic Sanskrit and it emerged in the 7th century CE.It originally emerged as Apabhramsha, a descendent of Prakrit in the 7th century A.D
Native speakersThe no. of Hindi speakers all around the world is 341 million.The no. of Punjabi speakers all around the world is 102 million.

What is Hindi?

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mostly in India. It is written in Devanagri script and is highly influenced by Sanskrit. Originally Hindi was called “Hindui”. It is the 4th most spoken language in the world. It is also one of the two official languages of the Government of India along with English. It is also an official language for 9 states and 3 union territories and an additional official language in the other 3 states.

Hindi is based on the “Khari Boli” dialect, found in north and east of Delhi. There are many dialects of Hindi such as Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Chhattisgarhi, Haryanvi, Kanauji, Marwari, Bagheli, Garhwali, Kumayuni, and Magahi. These dialects are actually the regional languages of the Hindi-speaking zone of India.

Hindi is a descendant of Sanskrit and Prakrit language. In general, the adjective changes with the number and gender with the noun but in Hindi, the adjective doesn’t always change with the change in the noun since it was influenced by Persian. Also, the number of genders has also reduced to two in Hindi namely, masculine and feminine. So, the grammatical approach of Hindi is simpler as compared to other languages.

The vocabulary of Hindi is quite big. It is also inspired by many other languages from other countries like, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, etc. whose immigrants contributed to the creation of new Hindi and has a great number of words that are inspired by the Persian language like, “divar” wall, “sabun” soap, “kursi” chair, “chador” bedding, “pajama” pants, etc.

Hindi

What is Punjabi?

The Punjabi language is one of the most spoken Indo-Aryan languages. The spelling “Punjabi” was given by Britishers is commonly used whereas the academically correct spelling is “Panjabi”. There are more than 30 million people who speak Punjabi in India. It is also the official language of Punjab and one of the 22 official languages of India. Apart from India, Punjabi is also spoken in Pakistan. There are more than 70 million speakers of Punjabi in Pakistan. In Canada and the United Kingdom also the number of people who speak Punjabi is huge.

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In India, Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi script and is generally associated with Sikhs. It is written from left to right like Hindi in India. In Pakistan, the script is called Shahmukhi and is written from right to left like Urdu.

The two countries where Punjabi is most popular are:

  1. Punjabi in India: There are huge numbers of Punjabi speakers in India. This language is mostly spoken by Sikh people who live in Punjab, a state in India or nearby states. Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi script and is more influenced by Hindi and Sanskrit.
  2. Punjabi in Pakistan: There are a huge number of Punjabi Speakers in Pakistan as well. They use Shahmukhi script for writing Punjabi and it is more influenced by Urdu.
Punjabi

Main Differences Between Hindi and Punjabi

  1. Hindi is considered the national language of India and is one of the two official languages of India whereas Punjabi is one of the 22 languages officially used in India.
  2. Hindi is written in Devanagri script whereas Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi as well as Shahgiri scripts depending upon the country.
  3.  The total number of alphabets in Hindi is 45 among them 35 is “Vyanjan” and 10 is “Swar” whereas in Punjabi there are 35 alphabets only.
  4. Hindi is a direct descendant of Vedic Sanskrit and it emerged in the 7th century CE whereas Punjabi originally emerged as Apabhramsha, a descendent of Prakrit in the 7th century A.D.
  5. The no. of Hindi speakers all around the world is 341 million whereas the no. of Punjabi speakers all around the world is 102 million.

Conclusion

Hindi is a popular language that is used in many parts of India and worldwide as well. It is written in the Devanagri script. It is a beautiful language that has many dialects. It is spoken by 341 million people around the globe.

 Punjabi is a popular language as well. It is one of the 22 languages which are registered in the Indian constitution. It is spoken in the northern states of India and in Pakistan as well. It is a famous language and has its speakers across the globe.

References

  1. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-03844-5_70
  2. http://pt.learnpunjabi.org/assets/A%20Reference%20Grammar_Final.pdf