Difference Between India and Pakistan (With Table)

No such thing as “India” or “Pakistan ” existed since the British dominated the Indian territories. The British referred to a swath of land stretching from Afghan to Burma as “Hindoostan,” British India or Britain’s Asian Colony, or simply the “Raj ”. However, when India claimed back its long independence in 1947, it was preceded by a severe partition; a partition that split India’s diversity into two and gave birth to two new nations. Hindustan was partitioned into two countries: India and Pakistan.

This article focuses on the differences between these two sister nations starting from their history, geography, demography, and diversity. This article will let you know the various highlights and facts about both nations.

India vs Pakistan

The difference between India and Pakistan is that India is a prominently democratic and secular nation whereas Pakistan is not secular and is a Muslim country. In terms of demography and resources, India is superior and more flourished than Pakistan. Including the population, India currently stands at 1.3 billion whereas Pakistan has a total population of approximately 169 million.

India is a South Asian country that encompasses the majority of the continent. Its capital is a metropolitan city namely: New Delhi was created in the twentieth century to function as India’s administrative and governance center, immediately south of the ancient city of Old Delhi. Its administration is a representative democracy that consists of extremely varied people, with dozens of ethnicities and thousands of languages. India is the world’s second-largest second most populated country, behind China.

Talking about Pakistan is a multicultural country in Southeast Asia with a large population. Pakistan has socially and historically been linked to its borders Iran, Kabul, and India due to its Indo-Iranian people who speak. Pakistan has been distinguishable from its bigger neighbor to the south by its predominantly Majority of Muslims since the two countries gained independence in 1947. Its capital city is Islamabad, which is found on the north slopes of the Himalayas.

Comparison Table Between India and Pakistan

Parameters of ComparisonIndiaPakistan
Geographic LocationSouthern Asia near the equator. Location: 20.5937° N, 78.9629° ESouth eastern Asia. Location: 30.3753° N, 69.3451° E
Population1.3 Billion169 Million
EthnicityIndia is a secular state with majority of Hindus and Muslim consists of 10 percent of Indian Population.Pakistan is a Muslim Republic state.
Capital CityNew DelhiIslamabad
Literacy Rate69.3%59.13%

What is India?

Being the 7th largest country in the whole world, India is one of the biggest civilizations rather than a country, having a wide range of civilizations, diversity at its peak, and vibrant heritage. Throughout the last 65 years of its freedom, it has made significant socio-economic development.

India has grown into a self-sufficient country in agricultural output and is now one of the world’s most industrialized nations, as well as one of the few countries to have conquered the environment for the advantage of its inhabitants. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas to the rain forests in the southeast, covering 32,872,263 square kilometers.

In terms of Indian history, leaders of the INC such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Nehru envisioned India as a democratic state along with secularism. It was intended to provide civil and social freedom to all the inhabitants of the nation.

And, India according to the latest projections, the population is over 1.3 billion individuals, with 10 percent of the population, or 120 million Muslims. India continues to be one of the globe’s most culturally diverse nations. Aside from its numerous faiths and denominations, India is home to a multitude of castes and communities, including more than a dozen main and thousands of smaller linguistic groups from disparate ethnolinguistic groups.

What is Pakistan?

Pakistan is an indeed spectacular South Asian nation of about 200 million people. It is bounded by Kabul, Iran, India, and China, and has a shoreline that runs along the Arabian Sea and the Oman Gulf region. The Thar desert to its east and the Himachal and Pamir ranges in the northwest, Pakistan’s topography is varied and diverse just like India. It is indeed a beautiful nation with lots of spectacular tourism spots.

The administration is a constitutional republic that has evolved over the years, with the presidency serving as the head of state and the prime minister as the leader of the country or government. Pakistan has a mixed economic system, with both free market and regulatory participation. Pakistan is also a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).

Unlike its topography, the climatic conditions of Pakistan are rather harsh for its inhabitants. Pakistan’s climate is characterized by droughts and aridity, and its geographical origin may be observed in the extremes of heat. Pakistan lies on the cusp of a northeast monsoon climate pattern. Precipitation is usually irregular across the nation, and its volume is very varied.

Main Differences Between India and Pakistan

  1. India is a democratic and secular state whereas Pakistan is an Islamic Republic state.
  2. India has a population of 1.3 billion whereas Pakistan has a population of 169 million.
  3. India is located in Southern Asia whereas Pakistan is located in Southeastern Asia and shares its border with India.
  4. India’s capital city is New Delhi whereas Pakistan’s capital city is Islamabad.
  5. India has a literacy rate of 69.3% whereas Pakistan’s literacy rate is 59.13%.


From the Mughal era until the Raj, India, and Pakistan have indeed been part of the same administrative entity. Even though India is several times larger than Pakistan in terms of land, demographic society, and military might, the two countries have Muslim populations that are equal in size.

The bottom line is that both sister nations are developing countries with attractive people. There have been tussles between the two nations at times, but the linked history and geography of India and Pakistan suggest that ties will improve in the near future, and each nation will work together for its own benefit.


  1. https://www.britannica.com/place/Pakistan/The-desert-areas#ref23682
  2. https://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/pakistan.htm
2D vs 3D